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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:51   #1  |  Link
tareek
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Tech Details on Video/Audio Hardware, Signal, Standards, Connector, Cable, etc

Please ONLY Add Tech Details on Video/Audio Hardware, Signal, Standards, Connector, Cable, etc Here .

Requesting all users, to add related data only .

This article should help to reduce many questions, confusions .
(Goto Index (next post) now)

Please Read/Follow these few Request/Rules, before you post in this thread :

1. Please keep this thread like an online book on this article, in this forum category, so, please don't ask for help (or discuss anything) in this thread . Start your own new different thread (or, PM) for help (or discuss) on whatever that you want to . If you find wrong data, or, want to congratulate, or, criticize, or, communicate, then send PM to the user, or, users, or, mod(s) . Many thanks .

2. PLEASE submit/post ONLY factual data . Real valid verifiable data/information ONLY , related to this article . Many thanks .

3. If you're posting a similar category/chapter data, which (if) you've posted before, then please goto your own first post on that chapter . Edit your 1st post and put/update your data inside . In that way, "Index" will be smaller, similar data will/can be kept closer & within less pages, will be more easier to find & read . Many thanks .

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Q. What is in this guide ? how can i read on the subject that i'm looking for ?

A. It contains Tech Details on Video/Audio Hardware, Signal, Standards, Connector, Cable, etc submitted by various users . See the below "Index" . Simply click on any word in Index, to goto the post/article .

-------------------------------------------------------

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[post]779681[/post]
above code will result in / appear like below ...
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[post=779681]Index[/post]
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Index

-------------------------------------------------------

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[thread]106753[/thread]
above code will result in / appear like below ...
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[thread=106753]Audio/Video Standards Guide 1st Page[/thread]
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Audio/Video Standards Guide 1st Page

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Audio/Video Standards Guide, Page 2

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Last edited by tareek; 11th February 2006 at 09:50.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:52   #2  |  Link
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Contents / Index ( 01 of 02 ) :
(Mods, Admins are always welcome to edit this or above post)

Radio frequency (RF) : Pg 1 (by Tareek) , .

TV Standards :
TV Type :
Monitor Type:
Projector Type:

Film : Pg 1 (by Tareek) , .

Audio Signal :
Video Signal :
Connector :
Cable :
Wireless :

Digital Compression :
  • MPEG4
  • VC-1
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Last edited by tareek; 8th February 2006 at 07:41.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:52   #3  |  Link
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Contents / Index ( 02 of 02 ) :
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Last edited by tareek; 5th February 2006 at 02:51.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:53   #4  |  Link
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Abbreviation / Hot / common word /terms :

aka : Also Known As .
Pg : Page .
PM : Private Messege .
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Last edited by tareek; 11th February 2006 at 09:30.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:54   #5  |  Link
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Data on Audio video
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:54   #6  |  Link
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RF : Radio Frequency . co-axial cable . RF connector (aka : F Connector/plug/socket, max 3 GHz) .
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:55   #7  |  Link
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NTSC :

is mostly used in North America .

National Television System Committee .

RF audio-video pattern .

TVs uses 60 Hz refresh rate .

color info is at sub-carrier of 3.58 MHz (NTSC) (3.579545 MHz + 10 Hz) . by phase shifting this sub-carrier against the color sync signal (color burst), various hues are maintained .

resolution : 640 x 482 (NTSC) , 320 x 482 (NTSC VHS) , 648 x 486 (NTSC Digital) , 720 x 486 (D-1 NTSC) , 720 x 540 (D-1 NTSC square px) , .
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:56   #8  |  Link
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PAL :

is mostly used in Asia, western Europe, throughout the Pacific, southern Africa .

Phase Alternating Line .

PAL uses wider channel bandwidth than NTSC, so better picture .

TVs uses 50 Hz refresh rate .

color info is at sub-carrier of 4.43 MHz (PAL) (4.43361875 MHz + 5 Hz) . by phase shifting this sub-carrier against the color sync signal (color burst), various hues are maintained .

resolution : 720 x 576 (PAL) , 720 x 486 (PAL Digital) , 720 x 576 (D-1 PAL) , 768 x 576 (D-1 PAL square px) , .
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:56   #9  |  Link
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SECAM : is mostly used in France, easter europe, middle east, africa .
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:57   #10  |  Link
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TV :

Television . aka SDTV . Standard Definition Television .

NTSC 480i . PAL 625i .

i stands for Interlace Scan Format . p stands for Progressive Scan Format . in interlace scan mode, only odd numbered lines out of all the horizontal (picture) lines are displayed in one cycle of the picture scan on the screen . rest of the other even numbered lines are displayed in the next scan cycle . when tv displays all the horizontal picture lines in every/one cycle of the picture scan, then it is progressive scan, (like computer monitor) . progressive scan is better than interlace scan .

uses RF transmission signals through air . or, directly supplied video signal, like, (composite) video, S-Video, component, RGB, DV, etc .

color info is at sub-carrier of 4.43 MHz (PAL) (4.43361875 MHz + 5 Hz), 3.58 MHz (NTSC) (3.579545 MHz + 10 Hz) . by phase shifting this sub-carrier against the color sync signal (color burst), various hues are maintained .

standard TV aspect ratio is 4:3 . Wide-screen (aka HDTV) tv aspect ratio is 16:9 .

if source signal's aspect ratio is 1.78:1, it will fill up the full wide-screen tv . if it is 2.35:1, then you will see black bars at top & bottom (with full width) (aka letterboxing) .

See Page 2 also, for various types of TV .
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Last edited by tareek; 6th February 2006 at 09:39.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:57   #11  |  Link
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HDTV :
High Definition TV .

HDTV is better than Standard TV (PAL, NTSC, SECAM) .

resolution :
1080i : 1920 x 1080 . Horizontal 1920 pixels per line . 1080 vertical lines .
720p : 1280 x 720 . Horizontal 1280 pixels per line . 720 vertical lines .

uses 20 Mbps bandwidth .

16 x 9 aspect ratio screen .

if source signal's aspect ratio is 1.78:1, it will fill up the full wide-screen tv . if it is 2.35:1 (anamorphic), then you will see black bars at top & bottom (with full width) (aka letterboxing) .
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Last edited by tareek; 6th February 2006 at 05:21.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:58   #12  |  Link
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Digital Film Standard Resolution (aka Academy standard) 2048 x 1536 .
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:58   #13  |  Link
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Composite video :

CVBS . aka : video, baseband video .

one signal .

better than RF (PAL, NTSC, SECAM) video signal .

Chroma (colour Red-Green-Blue info), Video (monochrome info), Blanking (picture frame defining signal) and Sync (synchronising pulses for keeping the picture straight, horizontally and vertically) are mixed together .

RCA connector . older models may contain BNC connector . or, SCART .

Vertical sync pulse is 25 Hz (PAL) (aka : frame), 30 Hz (NTSC), so vertical field frequency is 50 Hz (PAL), 60 Hz (NTSC) .

Horizontal Sync Pulse for NTSC is 525 (scanning lines per frame) x 30 (frames) =15750 Hz, for PAL it is 625 (lines) x 25 (frames) = 15625 Hz .

normally, amplitude of composite video signal is 1 V p-p .
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Last edited by tareek; 4th February 2006 at 18:56.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 11:59   #14  |  Link
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S-Video :

Separate video . aka : Y/C, C/Y, super video, S-VHS .

two analog signal . better than composite video signal .

4 pin mini-DIN (newer), 8 pin DIN (older), SCART, etc connector .

use high quality 75 ohm co-axial cable (use less than 50 meters long cable, for good quality) .

Luminance =Y =brightness signal (aka : LUMA), and, modulated chrominance =C =color subcarrier information/signal .

those each signal, are using synchronized signal/ground 2 wires, so two signals have 4 wires . and the common/shielding is 1 wire .

more luminance bandwidth info, and, less color crosstalk (aka : cross-color, moiré), than the composite video signal . so better than composite video signal . color is mixed (Cb & Cr) and can be PAL, NTSC or SECAM, etc .
Code:
            S-Video
    4 pin               7pin
       o  o                o   o
    o        o          o         o    1=Ground
  o            o      o  4  5  3   o   2=Ground
 o   4 w w 3    o    o   w  w  w    o  3=Luminance
o   2 w   w 1    o  o   w  w  w  w   o 4=Chrominance
o                o  o   2  6  7  1   o 5= -
o                o  o                o 6=Composite Vdo
 o              o    o              o  7=Ground
  o            o      o            o
    o        o          o        o
      o  o o              o  o o
1=Ground                  
2=Ground
3=Luminance
4=Chrominance
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Last edited by tareek; 4th February 2006 at 18:43.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 12:01   #15  |  Link
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SCART connector :

Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs (French-originated) . aka : Péritel (France), Euroconnector .

21-pin connector, EN50049 .

for connecting audio-visual equipment together .

can carry Composite, RGB, SVHS (S-Video), etc signals, as well as audio and other signal .

better than other connectors .

Code:
male SCART port pinout
+--------------------------------------------+
|   2   4   6   8   10  12  14  16  18  20  /
|                                          /
| 1   3   5   7   9   11  13  15  17  19   | 21
+------------------------------------------+
(1). Audio output, right . (2). Audio input, right .
(3). Audio output, left . (4). Audio ground .
(5). Blue ground . (6). Audio input left .
(7). Blue . (8). Function switching (see below) .
(9). Green ground . (10). D²B input .
(11). Green . (12). D²B output .
(13). Red/Chroma (C) ground . (14). D²B ground .
(15). Red/Chroma . (16). Fast switching (see below) .
(17). Composite video ground/sync ground/Luminance (Y) ground .
(18). Fast switching ground .
(19). Composite video output/sync output/Luminance (Y) output .
(20). Composite video input/sync input/Luminance (Y) input .
(21). Common ground (metal shield) .
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Last edited by tareek; 3rd February 2006 at 14:06.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 12:01   #16  |  Link
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Componet Video :

aka : YPbPr, YCbCr, YUV .

contains luminance (Y) signal and separate chrominance (PR and PB) elements .

3 signals .

As each (separate) signals are maintained in their own medium (and not through one or two wires), a very very high quality picture with (very precise color representation) is possible .

better than S-Video, composite video signal .

Many DVD players have RCA connector for Y, Cb, and Cr video signals . Many HDTV have RCA connecor for Y, Pb, and Pr .

Y signal contains Black & White composite video signal and Luminance Brightness info and composite sync info signal . Cr and Cb signals each contains matrixed color difference info to extract Red/Blue from the Y signal . when Red and Blue part is taken out (or, accounted for), remaining part must be Green .

DVDs are usually encoded with component video signals, for high quality .

supports progressive, non-interlaced signal .
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Last edited by tareek; 4th February 2006 at 18:44.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 12:02   #17  |  Link
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SoG :

aka : RGsB, Sync On Green, RGB+CompositeVideo .

3 signals .

better than Component Video, S-Video, Composite Video signals .

BNC connector .

like RGB signal, but sync signal is mixed with Green color signal .
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Last edited by tareek; 4th February 2006 at 18:55.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 12:03   #18  |  Link
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RGB :

aka RGBS, RGB+CompositeSync .

4 signals .

better than SoG, Component, S-Video, Composite Video signals .

BNC connector .

three different color (R, G, B) signals and one Composite Sync (S) signal containing H & V pulses .

better than S-Video & component video signal .
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Last edited by tareek; 4th February 2006 at 18:54.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 12:04   #19  |  Link
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VGA :

five major analog signals . RGBHV . three RGB signal with two separatge sync signals .

uses 15 pin High Density D-Type (VGA HD15) connector .

better than RGB, SoG, Component, S-Video, Composite Video signals .

non-interlaced .

Code:
    VGA connector pinout
+--------------------------------+
\      1   2   3   4   5         /
 \   6   7   8   9   10         /
  \    11  12  13  14  15      /
   \                          /
    \+----------------------+/
Pin Signal name Description
(1) RED Red video signal .
(2) GREEN Green video signal .
(3) BLUE Blue video signal .
(4) n.c. No connect .
(5) GND Ground .
(6) RED_RTN Red video signal return .
(7) GREEN_RTN Green video signal return .
(8) BLUE_RTN Blue video signal return .
(9) n.c. No connect .
(10) GND Ground .
(11) n.c. No connect .
(12) SDA I2C data .
(13) HSYNC Horizontal synchronization signal .
(14) VSYNC Vertical synchronization signal .
(15) SCL I2C clock .
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Last edited by tareek; 6th February 2006 at 09:47.
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Old 3rd February 2006, 12:05   #20  |  Link
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DV :

Digital Video . aka : DV , Firewire .

Firewire cable .

iLink connector/port .

no data loss .

better than VGA, RGB, SoG, Component, S-Video, Composite Video signals . also depends on source's encoding, quality type .
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Last edited by tareek; 8th February 2006 at 20:26.
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