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Old 25th March 2013, 12:57   #1  |  Link
fvisagie
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Is this what Levels() and coring do?

After reading the Levels documentation I'm still uncertain about a few things and I'd be grateful if someone could confirm my understanding, please.

When processing in YV12 mode, these are the points I'm not quite certain about (and how I understand them to work):
  1. with coring=true, chroma is clamped to [16,240], scaled from [16,240] to [0,255], converted by the same formula as luma and scaled back to [16,240]
  2. with coring=false, chroma is converted by the same formula as luma
Is that roughly correct?

Thanks,
Francois
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Old 25th March 2013, 17:24   #2  |  Link
StainlessS
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If you download "Graffers&Toys.zip" in my sig, and try "Levels_Graf.exe", it will show effects of coring.
Allows visual inspection of effect in graph and on loaded BMP (converted to YUV, when in YUV mode).

EDIT: I've always thought Levels Luma coring worked oddly, (I think it's bugged & never use it (coring),
bugged or not, I dont like the way it works).
Works ok if ouput min=0 and output max=255 otherwise not.

Set I/P min to eg 40, I/P max to eg 220, coring = ticked,
limit=0, Grid=1, RGB unticked, mode=Y,

and play with the O/P min & max sliders to see odd coring effect.
The little bubbles (red circles) shows where the Luma O/P min and max would
be if coring were not selected.

Chroma coring seems to work ok.

EDIT: Perhaps this may assist, lut creator in VB, equivalent to CPP code.
Code:
Private Sub Levels_LUT()
Dim i As Integer, divisor As Double, p As Double, pp As Double, q As Double
Dim in_min As Integer, in_max As Integer, out_min As Integer, out_max As Integer
Dim gamma As Double
    gamma = (vsb_Gam.Value + 256#) / 256#
    If gamma < 0.004 Then gamma = 0.004         ' Approx 1/256, avoid / zero
    
    in_min = hsb_IP_Min.Value
    in_max = hsb_IP_Max.Value
    out_min = vsb_OP_Min.Value
    out_max = vsb_OP_Max.Value
    divisor = in_max - in_min
    If divisor = 0 Then divisor = 1             ' Avoid / zero
    If chk_RGB.Value = vbChecked Then
        For i = 0 To 255
            p = (i - in_min) / divisor
            If p < 0# Then p = 0#
            If p > 1# Then p = 1#
            p = p ^ (1# / gamma)
            p = p * (out_max - out_min) + out_min
            p = Round(p)
            Debug.Print i; ")", p
            If p < 0# Then p = 0#
            If p > 255# Then p = 255#
            Map(i) = p
        Next i
    Else
        For i = 0 To 255
            If chk_Coring.Value = vbChecked Then
                p = ((i - 16) * (255# / 219#) - in_min)
            Else
                p = (i - in_min)
            End If
            p = p / divisor
            If p < 0# Then p = 0#
            If p > 1# Then p = 1#
            p = p ^ (1# / gamma)
            p = p * (out_max - out_min) + out_min

            If chk_Coring.Value = vbChecked Then
                pp = Round(p * (219# / 255#) + 16#)
                If pp < 16# Then pp = 16#
                If pp > 235# Then pp = 235#
            Else
                pp = Round(p)
                If pp < 0# Then pp = 0#
                If pp > 255# Then pp = 255#
            End If
            Map(i) = pp
            q = Round((i - 128#) * (out_max - out_min) / divisor) + 128
            If chk_Coring.Value = vbChecked Then
                If q < 16# Then q = 16#
                If q > 240# Then q = 240#
            Else
                If q < 0# Then q = 0#
                If q > 255# Then q = 255#
            End If
            MapChroma(i) = q
        Next i
    End If
End Sub
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"Some infinities are bigger than other infinities", but how many of them are infinitely bigger ???

Last edited by StainlessS; 25th March 2013 at 19:42.
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Old 25th March 2013, 19:25   #3  |  Link
fvisagie
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Thanks, StainlessS. For this work (only normalising luma) I think I'll give Levels() a miss then - too much unwanted stuff thrown in for free.
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Old 25th March 2013, 19:38   #4  |  Link
StainlessS
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fvisagie, I meant I never use coring, levels without coring=true is fine.
Coring seems to assume both input and output luma are range 16,235, I would prefer
clamping output only. Also, it is intention of original programmer that both input and output min & max,
can be outside the 0->255 range. (from Docs, "However, the input and output parameters can be larger than 255. ",
however fails to mention the less than zero possibility.)
I prefer to think of levels (without gamma & coring thing), as drawing a straight line between coords IPmin,OPmin and IPmax,OPmax
(saturated at those coords) and clamped 0->255, with whatever passes through the 0->255 graph being the result.

EDIT: Modifying 'Limit' in the graffer allows you to use inputs & outputs outside of the 0->255 range, just as you can
as arguments to the levels filter.
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"Some infinities are bigger than other infinities", but how many of them are infinitely bigger ???

Last edited by StainlessS; 25th March 2013 at 20:09.
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Old 25th March 2013, 19:59   #5  |  Link
fvisagie
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Quote:
Originally Posted by StainlessS View Post
I prefer to think of levels (without gamma & coring thing), as drawing a straight line between coords IPmin,OPmin and IPmax,OPmax
and clamped 0->255, with whatever passes through the 0->255 graph being the result.
That's how I also have it. Problem is, it does it for chroma also (as I understand). In this case I'd prefer to explicitly address chroma in a separate step, not least because it needs somewhat different treatment than luma.
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Old 25th March 2013, 20:05   #6  |  Link
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With Chroma, it rotates around the central point 128,128, would seems correct to me, and the slope
is maintained parallel with Luma slope. (Central point 128,128 represents 0,0)
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"Some infinities are bigger than other infinities", but how many of them are infinitely bigger ???

Last edited by StainlessS; 25th March 2013 at 20:12.
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Old 25th March 2013, 21:01   #7  |  Link
Gavino
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Quote:
Originally Posted by fvisagie View Post
In this case I'd prefer to explicitly address chroma in a separate step, not least because it needs somewhat different treatment than luma.
In that case, you will probably find ColorYUV() more useful than Levels().
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Old 26th March 2013, 07:15   #8  |  Link
fvisagie
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It slipped my mind that much of this footage contains non-RGB YUV combinations as shown by jagabo's utility

Quote:
Code:
Subtract(last, ConvertToRGB(last).ConvertToYUY2()).Levels(112,1,144,0,255)
to check for illegal YUV combinations. A flat medium grey image means there are no problems.
RGB conversion is unfortunately necessary and Levels does a fair job not only normalising luma but also YUV combinations.

I appreciate your inputs nonetheless. At least now I'm fairly clear on how Levels() works .
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